Where Can I Buy Iodine Tincture
Iodine crystals, which are used legally for a variety of commercial andmedical purposes, frequently are used illegally to produce high qualityd-methamphetamine. The following ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction methodutilizes iodine in the production process.
where can i buy iodine tincture
The federal government regulates the sale of iodine crystals, which arereadily available for legitimate uses. However, it is illegal to import, export,purchase, or sell iodine crystals in the United States if they are used orintended to be used in the production of methamphetamine. Typicallymethamphetamine producers acquire iodine crystals through theft or diversion,from Mexican criminal groups that smuggle iodine into the United States acrossthe U.S.-Mexico border, or by purchasing and crystallizing iodine tincture, thesale of which is not regulated in most U.S. states.
Methamphetamine producers use iodine crystals to produce hydriodic acid, the preferred reagent in the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method of d-methamphetamine production. A reagent is a chemical used in reactions to convert a precursor into a finished product. The reagent does not become part of the finished product. The regulation of hydriodic acid by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in 1993 rendered the chemical virtually unavailable in the United States.
Hydriodic acid can be produced by combining iodine crystals with water and some form of phosphorus, including red phosphorus, hypophosphorous acid, or phosphorous acid. In the methamphetamine production process, iodine crystals may be used to prepare hydriodic acid in a separate step or may be introduced directly into the synthesis of the methamphetamine.
Small-scale methamphetamine producers who are unable to obtain iodinecrystals occasionally produce them from iodine tincture by mixing iodinetincture with hydrogen peroxide. This is a time-consuming process that yields avery small amount of iodine crystals in relation to the amount of tincture andhydrogen peroxide used.
Iodine tincture for human antiseptic use on wounds and scrapes usually issold in small quantities, typically in 1-ounce bottles containing 2 percentiodine. These small bottles are sold for $1 to $2. "Strong" iodinetincture (7% concentration) for veterinary use is sold in various sizes from16-ounce bottles to 50-gallon drums. A 16-ounce bottle of strong iodine is soldfor $4 to $6. The primary ingredients in iodine tincture are ethyl alcohol andwater.
Iodine tincture is not regulated by law and is sold in retail stores,pharmacies, and farm supply stores. It can be obtained easily via the Internetfrom horse and farm supply sites and online pharmacies.
Iodine crystals may be purchased from a variety of businesses. Crystalstypically are available for sale at chemical supply stores, feed and tackstores, and veterinary clinics and suppliers. Iodine also is widely available onthe Internet. One online pharmacy, for example, sells iodine crystals in ouncequantities for approximately $14. One pound of iodine crystals retails forapproximately $160. A rancher with a large farm typically may use up to 2 ouncesto treat a herd in 1 year. A methamphetamine producer, on the other hand, mayuse 2 to 4 pounds to produce 1 pound of methamphetamine.
Companies in several countries throughout the world produce and sell iodinecrystals commercially. Chilean companies were the world's largest producers ofiodine in 2000, followed by Japanese and U.S. companies. Overall, worldwideiodine production increased from 13,726 tons in 1994 to 18,993 tons in 2000.Iodine crystal producers sell the chemical to companies that either use iodinein manufacturing processes or sell it wholesale.
The Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996 identifies iodine as a List II chemical. DEA mandates that detailed records be kept for sales of iodine crystals that exceed the threshold of 0.4 kilogram established in 2000. Anyone who sells a total of 0.4 kilogram (13.98 ounces) of iodine crystals to an individual, corporation, business, or other legal entity in a 2-month period must obtain data identifying the purchaser, keep records of the transactions for 2 years, and report any suspicious transactions to DEA. This rule does not apply to iodine tinctures or other iodine mixtures.
On May 15, 2002, a federal jury convicted a feed store owner in Sallisaw, Oklahoma, on 12 criminal charges for selling iodine crystals to methamphetamine producers. The charges included conspiracy to distribute listed chemicals, possession and distribution of listed chemicals, conspiracy to commit money laundering, and money laundering. From January 1998 through September 2000, the store owner purchased nearly 5,000 pounds of iodine crystals at a cost of $8 per ounce and sold the crystals for $50 per ounce to individuals from Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. During the trial witnesses testified that the store owner knew the crystals were to be used to manufacture methamphetamine.
In California iodine sales and purchases are subject to even more stringent regulation. Section 11107.1 of the California Health and Safety Code requires recordkeeping of all iodine crystal sales regardless of the amount, and sales are limited to 8 ounces of iodine in a 30-day period to any individual. The seller must retain the original bill of sale for 3 years and maintain a record of sale that includes the purchaser's name, address, driver's license number or other state-issued identification number, license plate number, and a description of how the purchaser will use the iodine. Both the purchaser and seller must sign the record. The purchaser must also maintain a record for 3 years that includes the place and date of purchase, a description of the purchase, the quantity purchased, and the cost of the purchase. The records maintained by both the seller and purchaser must be made available to law enforcement upon request. The sale of iodine tincture in the amount of $100 or less is exempt from these requirements.
Law enforcement reporting indicates that the theft and diversion of iodinecrystals occur most frequently in the western half of the United States,particularly in states where methamphetamine production and abuse are prevalent.Law enforcement officials in Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico,Oklahoma, and Oregon have reported numerous incidents of iodine theft anddiversion. Most of these incidents occurred at businesses that appear to belegitimate. Feed and tack stores, also primary sources for the cutting agent MSM(methylsulfonylmethane), are particular targets.
Methamphetamine producers also obtain iodine crystals from Mexican criminalgroups that smuggle the crystals from Mexico into the United States. U.S.Customs Service (USCS) seizures of iodine at ports of entry (POE) along theU.S.-Mexico border increased from approximately 780 kilograms in 2000 toapproximately 2,140 kilograms in 2001. Most seizures occurred in SouthernCalifornia at the San Ysidro and Otay Mesa POEs. Seizures also were made at POEsin Arizona and Texas.
Law enforcement officers who come into contact with iodine crystals should exercise extreme caution when handling, storing, or transporting the chemical. Boots, gloves, eye protection, and respiratory gear should be worn when exposure to iodine is likely. Although iodine alone is not flammable, it is a strong oxidizer that can ignite or cause explosions when mixed with other combustibles or reducing agents such as alkali metals, ammonia, and phosphorus. Iodine should be stored in a tightly sealed container in a cool, dry area away from direct sunlight, drastic temperature changes, and chemical substances that react violently when mixed with iodine.
Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. Although there is no specific information comparing use of topical iodine in the elderly with use in other age groups, this medicine is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults.
Check with your doctor if the skin problem for which you are using topical iodine becomes worse, or if you develop a constant irritation such as itching or burning that was not present before you started using this medicine.
This medicine can stain your skin and clothing. Alcohol may be used to remove iodine stain on the skin. Stains on clothing can be removed by washing and rinsing them in ammonia diluted with water. Stains on starched linens can be removed by washing them in soap and water.
Design: Pairwise comparisons across phases. In phases 1 and 3, blood culture skin preparation was performed with the iodophor; in phases 2 and 4, skin preparation was performed with iodine tincture.
Results: A total of 8467 blood cultures were collected during the study, and 421 (4.97%) were classified as contaminated. The contamination rate for the blood cultures collected using the iodophor was 6.25%, and the contamination rate for the cultures using iodine tincture was 3.74%; this difference is statistically significant (P
Conclusions: The effectiveness of the skin antiseptic may be an important factor in determining contamination rate in blood culturing. If these results are confirmed by others, then institutions that have a high blood culture contamination rate when using an iodophor for skin preparation should consider changing to iodine tincture.
Subjects and methods: We performed a randomized trial in adult inpatients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Antecubital venipuncture sites were randomly disinfected with povidone-iodine or iodine tincture, and blood cultures (two bottles, 10 mL of blood) were drawn by professional phlebotomists. Scoring of contaminant species was restricted to skin flora. Hospital resource utilization was compared among patients with contaminated blood cultures and those with sterile blood cultures.
Results: Of the 3,851 blood cultures collected during the study, 120 (3.1%) were contaminated with skin flora. The contamination rate for blood cultures collected after povidone-iodine was 3.8% (74 of 1,947), compared with a rate of 2.4% (46 of 1,904, P = 0.01) after iodine tincture. The difference in mean total hospital costs for patients with contaminated blood cultures and those with sterile blood cultures was $4,100 (95% confidence interval: $740 to $7,400, P = 0.02). 041b061a72